The Russian Civil War knocks on the door of Siberia and the Steppe. The newly created Alash Autonomy must decide who they will ally with: the Bolsheviks or the White Army. Attracted by Bolshevik rhetoric, the Alash Orda start negotiates with the Soviets, but quickly learn that they have two, conflicting definitions of “self-determination”

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Making Uzbekistan: Nation, Empire, and Revolution in the Early USSR by Adeeb Khalid

Central Asia: a New History from the Imperial Conquests to the Present by Adeeb Khalid

Kazakh Autonomy and Russia: the History of the Alash Movement by Dina A. Amanzholova

The “Russian” Civil Wars: 1916-1916 by Jonathan D. Smele

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