Turar Risqulov: mighty intellectual, leader of the Musburo, and a powerful Kazakh member of the Soviet Union. He was betrayed by the very ideology he supported, and executed along with others like him because their nationalistic legacy threatened an insecure Stalin. Learn about how he tried to save Turkestan during a Russian Civil War, his showdown with Bolshevik General Mikhail Frunze, and what ultimate led to his downfall.
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“Turar Ryskulov: the Career of a Kazakh Revolutionary Leader during the Construction of the New Soviet State, 1917-1926” by Xavier Hallez
Making Uzbekistan: Nation, Empire, and Revolution in the Early USSR by Adeeb Khalid
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