The Russian Revolution provided the Kazakh intellectuals an opportunity to create their own government and redistribute land that had been taken from them by Russian settlers. But what sort of government can you create when you and your fellow indigenous intellectuals can’t agree on the best way to rule and the Russian Civil War is at your doorstep?

Palestinian support links:

If Charity

Mrs. Najah’s Kitchen

United Palestinian Appeal

Palestine Children’s Relief Fund

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‘Challenging Colonial Power: Kazakh Cadres and Native Strategies’ by Gulnar Kendirbai, Inner Asia 2008, Vol 10 No 1

‘”We are Children of Alash…” The Kazakh Intelligentsia at the beginning of the 20th century in search of national indeitty and prospects of the cultural survival of the Kazakh people’ by Gulnar Kendirbai, Central Asian Survey, 1999, Vol 18 No 1

‘The Alash Movement and the question of Kazakh ethnicity’ by Ozgecan Kesici, Nationalities Papers, 2017, Vol 45 No 6

‘Repression of the Kazakh Intellectuals as a sign of weakness of Russian Imperial Rule’ by Tomohiko Uyama Cahiers du Monde russe 2015 Vol 56, No 4

Making Uzbekistan: Nation, Empire, and Revolution in the Early USSR by Adeeb Khalid

Russia and Central Asia: Coexistence, Conquest, Coexistence by Shoshana Keller Published by University of Toronto Press, 2019

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